7.3. Work of a control system of the engine
The control system of the engine operates system of ignition and system of injection of fuel.
The fuel pump shipped in the fuel tank gives fuel to the fuel highway via the fuel filter. Fuel pressure in system is run by pressure regulator. It allows excess fuel to come back to the fuel tank at excess of pressure in system. The fuel highway is the tank for nozzles which inject fuel into inlet channels of cylinders of the engine. In the engine the distributed system of injection of fuel at which nozzles inject fuel independently from each other is used. The block operates work of nozzles, changing impulse duration – an interval of time during which the nozzle is open to provide supply of richer or poorer gas mixture.
Air passes through the air filter, the measuring instrument of a consumption of air and a butterfly valve to inlet channels of cylinders. On the basis of information from the measuring instrument of a consumption of air and sensors the control unit regulates time and amount of injectable fuel according to the measured amount of air and frequency of rotation. The longer the nozzle is open, the more fuel is injected.
Additional sensors transfer information to the control unit about temperature of cooling liquid and the air coming to the engine, and on models with catalytic converter – about the content of oxygen in the fulfilled gases.
The filter with absorbent carbon interferes with penetration of harmful vapors of fuel from the fuel tank in the atmosphere. Vapors of fuel collect in a canister with absorbent carbon – an adsorber and during the operation of the engine are burned up in engine cylinders.
The memory device in the control unit distinguishes the appeared malfunction and writes down it. At failure of the important sensor the control unit switches to the emergency program in order that the engine continued to work, though with smaller efficiency.
The system of ignition creates in each cylinder of the engine at some point the spark category which ignites the compressed gas mixture.