12.1. Recommendations about use of engine oils


Fig. 6-1. Viscosity of engine oils




General information
In cars the engine lubrication system under pressure is used. Oil from the oil pallet via the mesh filter and the filter of thin cleaning moves under pressure the oil pump. The valve in the oil pump supports by Perepuskna necessary pressure in the engine lubrication system. If pressure in the lubrication system of the engine exceeds a certain level, the valve opens perepuskny and a part of oil flows down back in the oil pallet.
Passing through an oil filter, the purified oil comes to the trunk oil main. In it the sensor of emergency pressure drop of oil which, including a control lamp in a combination of devices, signals about the low pressure of oil is installed. In an oil filter there is perepuskny a valve via which in case of strong pollution of the filter the crude oil comes to the oil highway at once.
From the trunk main on channels oil under pressure moves for lubricant of radical bearings of a bent shaft and further via channels in cranked to a shaft to conrod bearings. For cooling of pistons oil through nozzles is sprayed on the lower part of pistons.
On channels oil moves to a head of the block of cylinders for lubricant of bearings of camshafts and in hydraulic pushers.

Viscosity of oil
Viscosity (fig. 6 – 1) characterizes the oil fluidity which depends on temperature. In process of increase in temperature oil becomes more fluid. It worsens ability of oil to stickiness and stability to maintain high contact pressure. When cooling oil gets denser, fluidity decreases and internal friction increases. It is necessary to apply engine oil of optimum viscosity which depends on a design, an operating mode, degree of wear, ambient temperature and other factors to the engine.
At launch of the cold engine oil has to be sufficiently liquid excessively not to overload the engine. Besides, after start-up it has to get into all places of lubricant quicker.
Viscosity of oil is expressed in conventional units – degrees of viscosity of SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers – Association of automobile engineers of the USA), for example SAE 30, SAE 10. The high rate of SAE corresponds to dense oil, low – characterizes liquid oil.

All-weather oils
In engines of cars it is preferable to use all-weather oils. Advantage of all-weather oils consists that they do not need to be chosen seasonally. They are produced on the basis of liquid oil (type 10W). In a heated state this oil is stabilized by a so-called thickener that provides the corresponding lubricant qualities of oil at various temperature. When using all-weather oil it is necessary to apply modern brands with a wide temperature range of viscosity, for example SAE 10W–40, 15W–50.
The letter W ("winter" – winter) in the designation SAE characterizes suitability of use of oil during the winter period.

Oil with the increased lubricant properties
Oils with the increased lubricant properties represent all-weather oils which, besides other additives, contain the substances reducing friction coefficient. Use of such oils reduces fuel consumption by 2%. By their production special initial components (synthetic oils) are used.

Classes of viscosity and range of use of oil
As ranges of use of the next classes SAE are blocked, it is possible not to pay attention to short-term temperature fluctuations. Mixing of oils of various classes of viscosity is allowed if the oil dolivka is required, and surrounding temperature does not correspond to a class of viscosity of the oil which is filled in in the engine any more.
At air temperature below -20 °C it is recommended to fill in SAE 5W-20 oil for a long time.
The CD engine oils which the producer designates as oils for diesel engines are unsuitable for petrol engines. There are oils which use is possible in engines of two types, in this case both designations, for example SG/CD are indicated containers with oil.
It is impossible to enter into oil additional additives, irrespective of their look and appointment.

Engine oils
For modern engines it is necessary to use only HD oils with the increased lubricant properties improved at the expense of various additives. They improve anticorrosive protection, the best change of viscosity washing and dissolving action, interfere with oxidation and formation of slags. Washing and the dissolving additives not only reduce formation of the remains in the engine, but also at the same time these remains and other pollution in engine oil have ability to dissolve and keep in suspension so that they left together with the merged oil at its replacement.
Quality of HD oils is determined by the API system (American Petroleum Institut). The European producers also adhere to this system.
Brands of oils designate two letters. The first letter characterizes a scope: S (servise) are intended for petrol engines; With (commercial) are intended for diesel engines.
The second letter defines oil brand in alphabetical order.
Premium oils on classification of API are SG for petrol engines and CD for diesel engines.

Petrol engines
And – all-weather oils with the increased antifrictional properties, the VW 500 00 specification.
In – all-weather oils, the VW 501 01 specification.
  – all-weather oils, API-SF or SG specifications.

Diesel engines
And – all-weather oils with the increased antifrictional properties, the VW 500 00 specification (for diesel engines with a turbo-supercharging only in mix with oil, the VW 505 00 specification).
In – all-weather oils, the VW 505 00 specification (it is unlimited for all diesel engines).
  – all-weather oils, the API-CD specification (for diesel engines with a turbo-supercharging only in urgent cases for a dolivka).
 – all-weather oils, the VW 501 01 specification (for diesel engines with a turbo-supercharging only in mix with oil, the VW 505 00 specification).

Oil consumption
The consumption of oil is the amount of oil necessary for ensuring process of combustion of fuel-air mix. The consumption of oil does not include loss of oil because of leakage of the lubrication system of the engine. The consumption of oil is defined by temperature and pressure during the operation of the engine. The oil consumption is also influenced by service conditions of the car and a manner of driving. Maximum consumption of oil of-1 l on 1000 km of a run of the car.

Prevention
Do not fill in engine oil above max tag on the index (probe) as not burned down oil can get to system of release and damage catalytic converter.

Specifications
Oil pressure (at a temperature not below 80 °C) on single to the course / at 3000 min.-1, bar:
petrol engines of 2,8 l                                          1–2/3–5
petrol engines 3,7 and 4,2 of l                                 1–2,5/3–5
diesel engines of 2,5 l                                            0,8/2,0

Inhaling moments, N*m
Diesel engine of 2,5 l

The lower section of the pallet to the top section of the pallet
10
Pipe of discharge of cooling liquid to the pallet
10
Oil discharge stopper
25
Stopper of discharge of cooling liquid to a pipe
10
The oil pump to the block of cylinders
22
Delivery oil pipeline to the oil pump
10
Delivery oil pipeline to the top section of the oil pallet
10
Oil pipeline of a balancing shaft to the oil pump
10
Oil pipeline to an arm of a balancing shaft
10
Intermediate asterisk to the top section of the oil pallet
10
Partition to an arm of a balancing shaft
10
Asterisk of the oil pump to the oil pump
22
Asterisk of a balancing shaft
45
Arm of an oil filter to the block of cylinders
10
The mechanical valve of system of recirculation of the fulfilled gases to an inlet collector
22
Pipe of system of recirculation of the fulfilled gases to a transitional element
22
Pipe of system of recirculation to forward section of an inlet collector
10
Pipe of supply of oil to an arm of an oil filter
10
Diesel engine of 3,3 l

The lower section of the pallet to the top section of the pallet
10
Oil discharge stopper
50
Collar of fastening of a hose
2
The top section of the oil pallet to the block of cylinders
14
Arm of the pump of the amplifier of steering and compressor of the conditioner 
40
The pump of the amplifier of steering to an arm
22
Cooling system pipe to the top section of the oil pallet
10
The directing pipe for the index (probe) of level of oil to a head of the block of cylinders
10
Chain asterisk to the oil pump
34,5
The tension device of a chain to the oil pump
10
Bolts of fastening of the oil pump
30
Uspokoitel in the oil pallet to the top section of the oil pallet
10
Arm of an oil filter:

M8 – 22
22
M10 – 45
45
Stopper of a masloslivny opening in a cover of an oil filter
10
The sensor of emergency pressure drop of F1 oil to an arm of an oil filter
25
Petrol engine of 2,8 l

The lower section of the pallet to the top section of the pallet
10
Stopper of a masloslivny opening
40
Air duct to an inlet collector
22
The oil heat exchanger to the top section of the oil pallet
30
The top section of the oil pallet to the block of cylinders
10
The top section of the oil pallet to the transmission:

bolts of M – 8
25
bolts of M – 10
45
Oil receiver pipe to the oil pump
10
Torque compensator support to the top section of the oil pallet
42
The oil pump to the block of cylinders:

 M6 bolts
10
 M20 bolt
30
Tension roller of a gear belt to the oil pump
22