Fig. 5.3-2. Turbocompressor: 1 – sealing ring; 2 – a pipe of return of oil to the block of cylinders; 3 – laying; 4 – sealing ring; 5 – bolt, 10 N · m; 6 – a hose to the vacuum chamber for control of increase in pressure; 7 – bolt, 22 N · m; 8 – a pipe of supply of oil from an arm of an oil filter; 9 – hollow bolt, 15 N · m; 10 – sealing rings; 11 – bolt, 10 N · m; 12 – thermofilter; 13 – turbocompressor; 14 – nut, 22 N • m; 15 – nut, 22 N · m; 16 knee of a final collector for fastening of a turbocompressor; 17 – bolt, 25 N · m; 18 – laying; 19 – a reception exhaust pipe with converter; 20 – bolt, 22 N · m; 21 – a rack for an intermediate transitional element; 22 – transitional element; 23 – bolt, 22 N · m; 24 – bolt, 10 N · m
Power which the engine can develop depends on amount of air and fuel which comes to engine cylinders. For increase in engine capacity it is necessary to increase air supply and fuels. Giving of bigger amount of fuel will not give effect until the amount of air, sufficient for combustion, appears. Otherwise excess of not burned down fuel is formed that leads to an overheat and the increased smoke of the engine. For increase in amount of the air given to the engine the turbocompressor which compresses the air coming to the combustion chamber (fig. 5.3-2) is used.
The turbocompressor consists of the wheel of the centrifugal supercharger and the turbine connected among themselves by the general rigid axis. Both of these elements rotate in one direction with an identical speed. Energy of a stream of the fulfilled gases which in ordinary engines is not used, will be transformed to the torque putting a turbocompressor in action. The fulfilled gases which are going out of engine cylinders have high temperature and pressure. They disperse to high speed and interact with shovels of the turbine which will transform kinetic energy to mechanical energy of rotation. Transformation of energy is followed by decrease in temperature and pressure of the fulfilled gases. The turbocompressor sucks in air via the air filter, squeezes it and gives to engine cylinders. The amount of fuel which can be mixed with air can be increased that allows the engine to develop big power.
For turbocompressor lubricant engine oil moves under pressure on the special pipeline.
As the turbocompressor works at a high speed, it is necessary to observe care and purity: hit of dirt in a turbocompressor can put it out of action.
Before a detachment of any elements from a turbocompressor carefully clear them of dirt. For protection against pollution the elements removed from a turbocompressor arrange in a tight container, close air channels of a turbocompressor.
Between a turbocompressor and an inlet collector the intermediate cooler of air which reduces temperature of the air given to the engine is established. Cooling of air increases the engine capacity as in cold air because of its higher density the content of oxygen increases.
The vacuum tank is located in a forward part of the car under protection of an arch of a wheel.
Fig. 5.3-1. Elements of a control system of increase in pressure of the air coming to the engine: 1 – to a sapun on the case of the air filter; 2 – a vacuum hose to the vacuum tank or the vacuum pump; 3 – a vacuum hose from the electromagnetic valve of elevated pressure; 4 – vacuum amplifier of brakes; 5 – vacuum tank; 6 – unilateral valve; 7 – vacuum pump; 8 – to the switch of the valve of an inlet collector N239; 9 – a vacuum hose from the N18 valve to the mechanical valve of system of recirculation of the fulfilled gases; 10 – electromagnetic valve of management of increase in pressure of N75; 11 – EGR N18 valve
Pay attention to the provision of installation (the light party / a dark side) shown in fig. 5.3-1.
Switch off ignition and disconnect a wire of "weight" from the rechargeable battery.
Unscrew a bolt of fastening of a reception exhaust pipe on a transitional element.
Move a reception exhaust pipe back and down.
Weaken collars and remove an air branch pipe from the air filter.
Disconnect a hose from the vacuum chamber of management of increase in pressure.
Release clips, remove fuel-supply lines from an arm of an oil pipeline and move them aside.
Unscrew four bolts of fastening of a turbocompressor to a transitional element and remove a turbocompressor (fig. 5.3-11).
Close pure rags an opening for supply of oil in the block of cylinders of the engine.
Installation is carried out to the sequences, the return to removal, taking into account the following.
Replace all sealing rings, laying and самоконтрящиеся nuts.
Check that the sealing ring of a pipe of return of oil from a turbocompressor (fig. 5.3-12) was not damaged.
Fill a turbocompressor with oil through an opening for an oil supply tube.
After installation of a turbocompressor launch the engine and let's work to it idling within 1 minute, it will provide reliable lubricant of a turbocompressor.
Check the level of engine oil.